The second part of this exercise will entertain Fascism in thirteen different countries, comparing them to each other and to Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s; Hungary and Romania in the 1930s and later, Austria, Spain, Portugal, and Greece; in the 1940s, Norway, Croatia, and France. Fascist movements grew in England, South Africa, and the USA in the 1930s and 1940s; and in Argentina under Peron during 1946-1955 and again from 1973-74. An overview of Neo-Fascism in six European countries (Italy, Germany, Austria, France and the Balkans, and Greece) will bring the discussion to the XXI Century. Each session begins and ends with a listing of critical concepts. A narrative syllabus will be available electronically. Lectures and discussions will be illustrated with PowerPoint slides.


Ray Vergne, MD

Dr. Raymond Vergne is a retired cardiologist who has a graduate degree in Education and interests in literature, history, and music. His previous contributions to Chesapeake Forum include Don Quijote de la Mancha and History of the Papacy. He is currently secretary of the Board of Directors of the Mid-Atlantic Symphony Orchestra and writes the Program Notes for the subscription concerts. He was the organizer of the Chesapeake Chapter of the Chaine des Rotisseurs, an international gourmet society, and oversees the Legends of Wine series for the Eastern Shore Wine Tasting group. His interest in Fascism originates from an unusual family experience.

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